Ask UConn Extension

Common Questions Answered

Can someone identify this bug I found in my house/yard/garden?

Can someone identify this bug I found in my house/yard/garden?

We have nine statewide Master Gardener locations, and the Home and Garden Education Center at the UConn-Storrs campus available to help you identify an insect. You can either email us a photo, or you can stop in and visit.

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Extension Specialist

Sarah Bailey

Program Coordinator, Master Gardeners

sarah.bailey@uconn.edu

 

Could our dry summer have contributed to tree damage during Tropical Storm Isaias?

"Could our dry summer have contributed to tree damage during Tropical Storm Isaias?"

It is unlikely that tree damage was exacerbated during Tropical Storm Isaias by summer dryness. On the contrary, had the soil been saturated with water, I expect we would have seen much more uprooting damage than we did.

Some damage in severe winds is simply unavoidable. Our research has indicated trees that achieve “resonance” with the wind, in terms of sway frequency, are likely to fail. (Think of that old film we all saw in school of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure). Some gusts are simply too strong for any tree to withstand.

But much of the tree failure we see is a function of forest and tree conditions. Trees, especially those growing along roadsides are often growing under very stressful and crowded conditions and are not considered the most robust and storm-resistant specimens we might describe. Much of the damage we observe comes back to being a forest management issue that requires the collective will and cooperation of the utilities, towns, and property owners to address.

tree down across road in Brookfield, Connecticut on May 15, 2018
Photo: Jeremy Petro

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Extension Specialist

Tom Worthley

Tom Worthley

Extension Associate Extension Professor, Forestry Program, Forest Sustainability
Thomas.Worthley@uconn.edu
(860) 345-5232

Tom Worthley is Associate Extension Professor at UConn College of Agriculture, Health, and Natural Resources and the Department of Natural Resources and the Environment. He has written a number of scholarly articles and also teaches courses in Forest Ecology and Management and Dendrology. He has worked extensively on tracts in the UConn Forest and beyond in both outreach and educational activities.

 

How do I become a Master Gardener?

How do I become a Master Gardener?

The UConn Extension Master Gardener Program is part of UConn Extension. The program started in 1978 and consists of horticulture training and an outreach component that focuses on the community at large.

To become a Certified Master Gardener you must complete a sixteen week course that meets once a week, starting in January and running through April. Students receive training in subjects including botany, plant pathology, soils, entomology, pesticide safety, integrated pest management (IPM), ornamental plants, vegetables, tree and small fruits, turf grass, weeds, environmental factors affecting plant growth, and diagnostic techniques for the home gardener.

Following formal classroom instruction the Master Gardener student completes a 60-hour internship program. Thirty hours are dedicated to hands-on training in the extension offices where students are supervised in researching and determining the answers to a broad range of horticultural questions, including insect and plant identification, diagnosing plant diseases and providing sound horticultural recommendations.

Students devote the remaining thirty hours to organized community outreach projects. The Master Gardener program also offers Garden Master Classes. For Certified Master Gardeners they provide continuing education as part of the Advanced Master Gardener certification process. These classes are also open to the general public. Anyone with an interest in gardening and horticulture is welcome! More information on the program and classes is available at mastergardener.uconn.edu.

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Extension Specialist

Sarah Bailey

Program Coordinator, Master Gardeners

sarah.bailey@uconn.edu

 

How do I can or preserve my fruits and vegetables?

How do I can or preserve my fruits and vegetables?

It is important to learn and follow safe home food preservation methods.  There are risks to almost every method, but canning, pickling, and fermentation carry some specific risks. Here the Connecticut home food preserver will find links to information, methods, and recipes from sources that are based on science and have a reputation for researching recipes and methods to insure that they are safe for the home food preserver.

You may have some old favorite recipes that have been passed down over the generations.  While some may be perfectly safe (particularly those for jams, jellies, and preserves), others may pose a greater health risk.  By sticking to the methods and recipes provided here, you will be less likely to waste precious ingredients or make someone sick.

Keep in mind that your home preserved foods will likely not have the attributes of commercially preserved products.  Sometimes that is good—jams and jellies taste fresher—and sometimes it is not—we do not have the ability to blast freeze our fruits and vegetables at home, so the quality cannot match what you buy from the grocery store freezer.  It is important to have realistic expectations about home food preservation.

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Extension Specialist

Diane Hirsch

Assistant Extension Educator, Food Safety

Indu.Upadhyaya@uconn.edu

Indu obtained her bachelor of veterinary science and animal husbandry (equivalent to DVM) and a master’s degree in veterinary biochemistry from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research in Pondicherry. She completed her PhD from UConn in Animal Science with a focus on Food safety and Microbiology. She moved to Arkansas as a postdoctoral associate at the University of Arkansas Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, where she worked in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service Poultry Production and Product Safety Research Unit. 

Before coming back to UConn as a faculty, she worked as an Assistant Professor in the School of Agriculture at Tennessee Tech University for one year. She was involved with developing a research program on poultry and fresh produce safety, including writing grants and collaborating with other faculty from various disciplines. She also taught two upper-level undergraduate courses and worked on various food safety outreach and recruitment activities in Tennessee.

 

How do I get my soil tested?

How do I get my soil tested?

The UConn Soil Lab does soil testing for a small fee.

  • Have the test for home grounds and landscapers done.
  • The directions for completing the test and sending in the sample are located on their website. UConn Soil Lab Website

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Extension Specialist

Dawn Pettinelli

Associate Extension Educator
dawn.pettinelli@uconn.edu
(860) 486-4274

Manages/coordinates activities of the UConn Home & Garden Education Center and the UConn Soil Nutrient Analysis Laboratory.

 

How do I get my water tested?

How do I get my water tested?

If you have “city water”, your supplier is required to test your water on a regular basis (check your water company website or call for specific information). If you have a private well, it is up to you to have the water tested! It is a good idea to have your water tested on a regular basis to detect any changes in quality. A standard potability test can be performed at many state-certified lab. Additional information can be found in this CT Dept. of Public Health Publication on Private Well Water.

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Extension Specialist

Mike Dietz, PhD

Extension Educator
michael.dietz@uconn.edu
(860) 486-2436

Dr. Mike Dietz is an Associate Extension Educator for UConn Extension. Mike oversees the Connecticut Nonpoint Education for Municipal Officials (NEMO) program, in the Center for Land Use Education and Research (CLEAR). He has a Ph.D. in Water Resources from the University of Connecticut, and his extension and research programs focus on protecting surface waters, with a focus on green infrastructure techniques.

 

How do I keep my pond healthy?

How do I keep my pond healthy?

In general, to keep a pond healthy, the best thing you can do is be careful what you do in the area that drains to the pond. This means avoiding lawn fertilizer (regular or organic- both can cause problems in the water) and keeping a good buffer of vegetation around the area if possible. Also, watch out for road drainage which can add salts in the winter months.

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Extension Specialist

Mike Dietz, PhD

Extension Educator
michael.dietz@uconn.edu
(860) 486-2436

Dr. Mike Dietz is an Associate Extension Educator for UConn Extension. Mike oversees the Connecticut Nonpoint Education for Municipal Officials (NEMO) program, in the Center for Land Use Education and Research (CLEAR). He has a Ph.D. in Water Resources from the University of Connecticut, and his extension and research programs focus on protecting surface waters, with a focus on green infrastructure techniques.

 

How do I keep food safe in my kitchen?

How do I keep food safe for me and my family?

We all know that a dirty restaurant kitchen may put us at risk for foodborne illness. But do we apply the same rules to our home kitchens? What would a health inspector say if he checked your kitchen? To be sure that the food you make at home is safe, have the food safety tools you need, follow safe food handling procedures and make sure that your counters, work spaces and utensils are clean. 

Food costs consume much of the family budget. So, it makes sense to consider the safety of food when you buy it and bring it home. You don't want to throw food out before you even use it.

Do your shopping in a store that looks clean, has quick turnover of perishable foods, and has a commitment to safe handling and display of produce, deli foods, meat and poultry. You will want a store that responds well to your concerns about safe food handling. And if you have concerns about a food product once you get it home, the store should not make it difficult to return the suspect item for a full refund.

Once you bring food home from the market, it is you who are now responsible for keeping it safe for you and your family. Storing food safely is the first step. We offer tips for the refrigerator, freezer, and pantry.

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Extension Specialist

Indu Upadhyaya

Assistant Extension Educator, Food Safety

Indu.Upadhyaya@uconn.edu

Indu obtained her bachelor of veterinary science and animal husbandry (equivalent to DVM) and a master’s degree in veterinary biochemistry from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research in Pondicherry. She completed her PhD from UConn in Animal Science with a focus on Food safety and Microbiology. She moved to Arkansas as a postdoctoral associate at the University of Arkansas Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, where she worked in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service Poultry Production and Product Safety Research Unit. 

Before coming back to UConn as a faculty, she worked as an Assistant Professor in the School of Agriculture at Tennessee Tech University for one year. She was involved with developing a research program on poultry and fresh produce safety, including writing grants and collaborating with other faculty from various disciplines. She also taught two upper-level undergraduate courses and worked on various food safety outreach and recruitment activities in Tennessee.

 

How does my child join 4-H?

How does my child join 4-H?

4-H is open to any youth who is at least 7 years and not 19 years of age on January 1st of the calendar year.

  • We have a special program for 5 and 6-year olds called CT Explorers. Please contact your local 4-H office to see if an Explorers club is available in your area.
  • There is no charge to become a 4-H member. Interested youth should contact their local Extension Center. When you contact your local UConn 4-H office you will either be referred to an existing club leader, provided information on independent membership or the possibility of starting a group in their area will be explored.
  • Registration as a 4-H member is completed through the 4-H Online Enrollment System.

 

Extension Specialist

Nancy Wilhelm

Program Administrator, UConn 4-H

nancy.wilhelm@uconn.edu 

Nancy Wilhelm is the 4-H Program Administrator in the UConn Extension Storrs Office. She coordinates the selection process for 4-H award trips as well as multiple statewide 4-H events. She is also responsible for assisting 4-H clubs with the tax exemption process and compliance with minor protection guidelines.  

I found a tick on my animal. How can I get it tested for diseases?

I found a tick on my animal. How can I get it tested for diseases?

The Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (CVMDL) at UConn can test the tick for pathogens. Ticks received at the CVMDL are first examined and identified by trained technicians using a dissection microscope. This identification process determines the species of tick, life stage, and degree of blood engorgement, all of which are factors that may impact transmission of pathogens to the person or animal (the host). Ticks may then be tested for the DNA of pathogens that are known to be transmitted by that tick species. Results are reported within 3-5 business days of receiving the sample. Next business day RUSH testing is available for an additional fee. The information obtained from testing your tick at UConn is very useful when consulting with your physician or veterinarian about further actions you may need to take.

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Extension Specialist

Guillermo Risatti

Assistant Professor, Department of Pathobiology

Guillermo.Risatti@UConn.edu

Dr. Guillermo R. Risatti is an Associate Professor of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science at the University of Connecticut. He received a Degree in Veterinary Medicine from Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Argentina in 1987, a M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Virology from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, in 1995 and 2000, respectively. From 1999 to 2004 he was a Post-Doctoral Fellow with the Exotic Viral Diseases Group at Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY. In 2004 he became Assistant Professor at the University of Connecticut and Associate Professor in 2010. Dr. Risatti also is a Senior Faculty Consultant for the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, at the Connecticut Veterinary Diagnostic Medical Laboratory, Storrs, CT. He has over 40 journal and conference publications, 6 awarded patents, and has contributed to 3 chapters to 2 books. As a virologist with extensive expertise on foreign animal diseases as relates to mechanisms of induction of disease, disease detection and disease protection, he is serving as consultant for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA-US DoD) in two projects that focus of surveillance of African swine fever in the Republics of Georgia and Armenia. Since 2009 he has contributed to DTRA programs in the Caucasus Region focus on developing and providing training to veterinarians and veterinary diagnostic laboratory personnel in the Republics of Azerbaijan and Armenia that focused on detection of Especially Dangerous Pathogens (EDPs) working as consultant for DTRA through their Academic Engagement Partnerships at University of Illinois and Penn State University. His current research interest are on ASF and CSF mechanisms of host-virus interactions.

Dr. Guillermo Risatti, in the Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science within the College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, or CAHNR, has a multi-year working relationship with Dr. Maria Teresa Frias-Lepoureau from the Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), in San Jose de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba. Dr. Frias-Lepoureau is a researcher from Cuba working in the area of animal health, focused on the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a devastating swine virus that has been eradicated from the US since 1978, but still impacts Cuban herds.

 

I’m interested in engaging in local environmental stewardship efforts, but have no idea where to start and who to partner with. Where can I get resources?

I'm interested in engaging in local environmental stewardship efforts, but have no idea where to start and who to partner with. Where can I get resources?

Learn about conservation projects done by teens and community partners throughout the state (http://nrca.uconn.edu/projects/index.htm), learn about best practices when working with youth or community partners on a project (http://nrca.uconn.edu/students-adults/images/CTP_comm_bp.png), and use these project development guides and templates to develop a conservation project (http://nrca.uconn.edu/students-adults/materials.htm#resources)

nrca students in water

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Extension Specialist

Laura Cisneros

Assistant Extension Professor, Department of Natural Resources and the Environment

Laura.Cisneros@UConn.edu

My extension efforts focus on promoting environmental action and civic participation in addressing local conservation issues by diverse participants (e.g. teens, adult community volunteers, and teachers). Through UConn’s Natural Resources Conservation Academy (NRCA; www.nrca.uconn.edu), I develop and implement experiential, place-based environmental learning opportunities that integrate tools and technology used by professionals and support intergenerational (e.g., teen & adult teams) community conservation projects. My integrated research efforts center on understanding how environmental action programs and citizen science impact student achievement, develop informed & engaged citizens, and expand capacity to address environmental issues.

 

I want to explore Connecticut trails, how do I find them?

hiking boots hanging on fence post and person walking down the trail in the distanceConnecticut’s bounty of natural areas, and the multi-use trails and hiking trails to explore them, are among of the state’s greatest assets for encouraging physical activity and recreation. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection estimates that there are over 2,000 miles of multi-use trails within Connecticut State Parks and Forests alone, and the state’s famed Blue-Blazed Hiking Trails System, managed by the Connecticut Forest and Park Association includes more than 825 miles of volunteer managed hiking trails.

Answering the growing demand from the young workforce for alternatives to car-based transportation as well as the potential improvements to public health and community quality of life, Connecticut has invested millions of dollars in trail infrastructure.

The Connecticut Trail Census, a statewide trail data collection program, is launching its fourth year. The Census is a collaborative program with several statewide partners. Through this program, community-based volunteers collect data on how the state’s most popular multi-use trails are being used. The project is also currently developing plans for a statewide trail finder website. Resources about the Census and Trails Research are available at cttrailcensus.uconn.edu and cttrails.uconn.edu.

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Extension Specialist

Laura Brown and Charles Tracy

Laura Brown - Assistant Extension Educator - Community Economic Development

laura.brown@uconn.edu 

Laura Brown is a Community Economic Development Educator with UConn Extension and Certified Economic Developer (CED). Laura’s statewide work is focused on asset-based community, regional and economic development in urban communities. Prior to joining UConn in 2014, Laura served as an educator with the University of Wisconsin-Extension and the Hartford Food System. Laura holds a Master’s degree in Urban and Regional Planning from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology and Communications from Clark University.

Charles Tracy - Project Coordinator, Connecticut Trail Census

charles.tracy@uconn.edu

Charles Tracy is leading the Connecticut Trail Census, a statewide volunteer data collection program, designed to get a better understanding of multi-use trail use trends, and to make this information widely available. Prior to coming to UConn, Tracy worked as a National Park Service landscape architect, guiding regional trail development and landscape-scale conservation initiatives throughout New England. He holds master’s degrees in landscape architecture from the University of Massachusetts and in classics from the University of Texas. 

 

Is my tree dead?

"I have a tree on my property that failed to produce leaves last spring, is it dead"?

Another similar question is "The leaves on my tree all turned brown over the summer, is it dead"?

“During the spring and summer of 2018, the impact of previous years’ drought, defoliation from the Gypsy Moth, and secondary opportunistic pathogens became apparent as tens of thousands of roadside trees throughout eastern Connecticut and thousands of acres of oak woodlands exhibited severe mortality.” - Tom Worthley, Extension Associate Extension Professor

If your tree did not produce leaves last season, it is most likely dead and won’t produce leaves next year. This mortality is likely the result of invasive exotic insect pests in combination with drought conditions.

  • Trees that produced leaves this spring, but turned brown this summer have also died, due to secondary opportunistic pathogens taking advantage of stressed trees.
  • Ash trees that are dead decay quickly. Small twigs and branches will start dropping immediately, with larger branches dropping over the next several months. Depending on lean, the trunk might drop any time during the coming year or two.
  • Oak trees decay more slowly. Small twigs and branches will begin to drop this fall and winter, with larger branches dropping over the next year or two. The main trunk and limbs of oaks might retain some structural integrity for several years, but again, depending on lean, the trunk will tip over eventually as the root system rots away.
  • Removing dead trees is dangerous. Without proper training and safety equipment, people are easily injured. Professional help is strongly encouraged. Near houses and structures, seek the help of an arborist. A listing can be found at the web site of the CT Tree Protective Association.
  • Dead trees are dangerous. Please do not attempt to remove or harvest dead trees on your own without proper personal protective equipment (PPE) (chaps, hardhat, eye and ear protection), and appropriate chain saw safety training. There are no chain saw experts or professionals that do not use PPE.
  • To address affect stands on forested lands, the help of a CT Certified Forester is suggested. Be patient and persistent. The problem of tree mortality in our area has arborists and forestry firms working at full capacity, and they’re likely to be fully booked for some time.
  • If you are planning to use dead trees for firewood, please do not transport the wood to other states. Use it/burn it near where it has been harvested, to avoid spreading pests and pathogens.
live tree dead tree

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Extension Specialist

Tom Worthley

Tom Worthley

Extension Associate Extension Professor, Forestry Program, Forest Sustainability
Thomas.Worthley@uconn.edu
(860) 345-5232

Tom Worthley is Associate Extension Professor at UConn College of Agriculture, Health, and Natural Resources and the Department of Natural Resources and the Environment. He has written a number of scholarly articles and also teaches courses in Forest Ecology and Management and Dendrology. He has worked extensively on tracts in the UConn Forest and beyond in both outreach and educational activities.

 

My plant is sick. What is causing it? What should I do?

My plant is sick. What is causing it? What should I do?

We have nine statewide Master Gardener locations, and the Home and Garden Education Center at the UConn-Storrs campus available to help with your plant and gardening questions. You can either email us a photo, or you can stop in and visit with the plant specimen.

 

Extension Specialist

Sarah Bailey

Program Coordinator, Master Gardeners

sarah.bailey@uconn.edu

 

What is the best way to mulch around my trees?

"What is the best way to mulch around my trees?"

People also ask:

"Should I mulch around my trees?"

"What is a tree volcano?"

Mulch is useful at the base of a tree for many reasons. When done correctly, the mulch protects the tree from a lawnmower or string trimmer, aids in keeping the soil moist and keeps the ground cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter. Mulch also improves soil structure, aeration, and prevents soil erosion and runoff.

Tree Volcanos - A tree volcano is a landscaping technique of piling mulch in a cone or volcano-like shape around the base of a tree. While this may be aesthetically pleasing to some, in reality, it is devastating to the tree. Bark is the outermost protective layer or skin of a tree, to properly function, it needs to be exposed to air. If mulch is piled high around the trunk of the tree, the mulch softens the tree's bark and allows outside organisms like varmints, insects, bacteria, virus and fungi to penetrate into the tree. Over time a tree volcano will kill the tree.

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Extension Specialist

Bob Ricard

Senior Extension Educator, Forestry Program, Tree Wardens, Extension Disaster Education Network
Robert.Ricard@uconn.edu
(860) 409-9050

Bob Ricard is Senior Extension Educator with the Department of Extension and teaches in the Department of Natural Resources and the Environment. He came to the University of Connecticut in 1991.

Bob is responsible for helping Connecticut cities and towns with better managing public trees and forests focusing mostly on municipal tree wardens and community forestry volunteers. He also assists educators and researchers conduct social science research design and methods. He conducts the Tree Warden School and assists the Tree Wardens Association of Connecticut, Inc., which he formed in 1992. He is co-author, with Glenn Dreyer, of Greening Connecticut Cities and Towns: Managing Public Trees and Community Forests. Bob holds a Ph.D. in public policy with other degrees in forest resources. He is a Fellow of the Society of American Foresters.

Dr. Ricard has also been recently appointed as the Coordinator for the UConn EDEN (Extension Disaster Education Network). Bob has a background in emergency medical response as well as instruction. He is a certified Wilderness First Responder and Whitewater Rescuer. He holds certifications as an American Heart Association (AHA) Basic Life Support (BLS) Instructor, AHA BLS Healthcare Providers, American Red Cross (ARC) CPR/AED Instructor, and ARC BLS for Professional Rescuers and Health Care Providers. He is affiliated with the Amherst (MA) C.E.R.T and with the Berkshire Mountain Search and Rescue Team.

 

What are the squiggly things in my tomatoes?

I just cut open a tomato and there are squiggly things inside. What are they?

Have you ever cut into a tomato and found white squiggly looking things inside? These are not worms or aliens that made their way to the center, but rather seeds of the fruit that have begun germinating. It is called Vivipary, Latin for Live Birth. It is the term for plants that begin growing while still inside or attached to the mother plant. It is common in certain varieties of tomatoes, peppers, apple, pears, and some citrus.

This tomato probably was a bit older and sat on the counter for a while in a warm kitchen. Vivipary happens when the hormone controlling the seed dormancy is exhausted or runs out, letting the seed grow in the moist environment inside the fruit. This warm, moist environment is perfect for germinating seed to grow. If the tomato were left uncut in the warm conditions, the new plant sprout would eventually poke through skin of the now decomposing tomato. 

Read more about seeds sprouting in tomatoes, or visit our Home and Garden Education Center at: http://www.ladybug.uconn.edu/

 

Extension Specialist

Carol Quish

Program Assistant, UConn Home & Garden Education Center

Carol.Quish@uconn.edu

 

What resources are available for commercial hemp producers?

hempThe UConn Hemp Extension and Outreach Program assists commercial hemp producers by providing information on production techniques and pest management. The program emphasizes healthy soils, balanced plant nutrition, pest identification, and preventative management strategies. The program offers training and field visits for hemp growers.

We have organized several meetings for hemp growers, including a workshop in 2019, and the 2020 Connecticut Hemp Conference in February with our partners at USDA NRCS and CT RC&D. The conference covered healthy soils practices, local policy and regulations, Connecticut field trial results, as well as innovative production markets. The event was a valuable resource for local producers and farmers who are seeking connections in the state as well as knowledge about local issues and opportunities.

Additional information about our Hemp Extension and Outreach, as well as research being done in CAHNR is available at: hemp.cahnr.uconn.edu.

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Extension Specialist

Shuresh Ghimire

Assistant Extension Educator, Vegetable Crops

Shuresh.Ghimire@uconn.edu

Shuresh obtained his bachelor’s and master’s degree in agricultural science from Tribhuvan University in Nepal. He completed his Ph.D. in Horticulture (2015-2018) from Washington State University where he studied biodegradable plastic mulches for vegetable production. Prior to working in Washington, Shuresh was a Horticultural Development Officer for the Department of Agriculture in Nepal (2010-2015), where worked extensively with farmers conducting training and plant clinics and created extension publications. Shuresh also served as an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Horticulture at the Himalayan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology in Nepal. 

In addition to working as a vegetable specialist at UConn (since 2018), when hemp became a regulated agricultural crop in CT, he started working with hemp growers to create and disseminate information regarding hemp production practices and IPM.

 

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