Salmonella testing at the Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (CVMDL).
Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that targets the intestinal tract of humans and animals as well. Salmonella bacteria typically live in the intestines and are shed to the environment through feces. Backyard poultry and wild
birds are susceptible to Salmonella species. They also can carry and transmit Salmonella bacteria even if they look healthy and clean and show no signs of illness.
CVMDL has been routinely performing testing for Salmonella pullorum in backyard chickens.
Based on the current edition of the Merck Manual of Veterinary Medicine the disease caused by this bacterium (Pullorum disease, white bacillary diarrhea) is characterized by a very high mortality in young chicks and poults. Affected birds tend to huddle, become weak, show lack of appetite, they look depressed and they may have depositions of white colored feces. The disease may also affect older chickens, turkeys, game birds, guinea fowl, ostriches, parrots, peafowl, ring doves and sparrows.
Sources of infection for domestic birds.
According with the literature, the disease spreads mainly through contact with infected birds. Transmission from hens to chicks may occur via the egg. Both domestic and wild birds may act as reservoirs for the infection. Other sources of the bacterium could be contaminated feed, water and litter, as well as through contaminated clothing, footwear, vehicles and equipment.
Salmonella are bacteria that can live in the intestinal tracts of animals. There are many different types of salmonellae, some are found solely in animals and others can cause disease in both animals and people. Salmonellosis in humans can occur if they consume foods contaminated with Salmonella or have contact with animals or their environment. Animals commonly found with salmonella include reptiles, amphibians, poultry, wild birds, rodents, pocket pets, farm animals, dogs, cats, and horses.
Animals may carry certain types of Salmonella bacteria without showing any clinical signs of disease. When the Salmonella type does present with clinical signs, septicemia or typhoid, and enteritis (diarrhea) are seen. In some cases, abortion, arthritis, respiratory disease, necrosis of extremities (gangrene), or meningitis may develop. In these severe clinical infections veterinary management of Salmonella infection in an animal or herd may include isolation of the sick animal to recover, and limit any spread within the herd, or to humans. The presence of Salmonella in animals (i.e. Salmonella pullorum-typhoid or Salmonella enteritidis), is reportable to the state veterinarian and actively monitored for through surveillance testing of poultry going to fairs and requiring imported poultry to come from disease-free breeder flocks.
Salmonella is a major public health concern. There are approximately 40,000 human cases of salmonellosis reported in the United States every year, however the number could be thirty or more times greater, as milder cases may not be diagnosed by physicians or reported by the public.
People can become infected with Salmonella by:
Eating foods contaminated with the bacteria, such as beef, poultry, unpasteurized milk, eggs, or vegetables that are not properly handled, prepared and cooked.
Food contaminated by an unsanitary food handler during preparation.
Direct contact with farm animals or pets (including reptiles, baby chicks, and ducklings), animal feces, or animal environments.
Touching contaminated surfaces or objects and then touching their mouth or putting a contaminated object into their mouth.
Not washing hands after using the bathroom or changing diapers or touching animals or their environments prior to eating or drinking.
Drinking unpasteurized milk or contaminated water.
The Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (CVMDL) at UConn offers a number of diagnostic procedures and tests to assist veterinarians and animal owners in diagnosing Salmonellosis or other possible diseases. Services available are whole dead animal necropsy evaluations, sample culturing for pathogen identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing, and screening blood samples for export movement or flock certification.
CVMDL is the only laboratory in New England accredited by the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. The laboratory is located on the UConn-Storrs campus and provides diagnostic services, professional expertise, research, and detection of newly emerging diseases. CVMDL collaborates with federal, state, and local agencies to detect and monitor diseases important to animal and human health.
CVMDL is part of the Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science (PVS) in the College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources (CAHNR) at UConn. For more information, visit cvmdl.uconn.edu or contact 860-486-3738 or CVMDL@uconn.edu. Dr. Mary Jane Lis, the State Veterinarian at the Connecticut Department of Agriculture may be contacted with regard to voluntary and mandated testing requirements at 860-713-2505.
By Diane Wright Hirsch, MPH, Senior Extension Educator/Food Safety
During the holiday season, from Thanksgiving dinner through New Year’s celebrations, people who rarely spend time in the kitchen may be more likely to pick up a cookbook and make some cookies. Or, they may be stuffing their first turkey for Christmas day family dinner. Or possibly trying out a new appetizer for the office party—maybe even ceviche. (For those how may be unfamiliar with the term, “ceviche” it commonly refers to a shrimp or fish dish where citric acid, typically in the form of lemon juice or lime juice, is used to marinate raw fish or shrimp, often giving the appearance that the fish has been cooked.) Ceviche looks opaque and firm. But it is not cooked. The bacteria or viruses that may have been in the raw product have not been cooked away. They are still there. I have seen recipes for “faux ceviche,” that include cooking the shrimp or fish, but traditionally, it is not a cooked product. Consequently, it is risky. Ask your host or hostess if you are not sure of what they are serving.
Here is some guidance regarding foods or ingredients you may consider eating raw, whether you are a new cook or a seasoned cook who has always “done it this way” and “NEVER made anyone sick.” Keep in mind that your family may include very young children, the elderly or a chronically ill family member who may be at greater risk for the more severe consequences of a foodborne illness. So while you, a healthy adult, may be comfortable throwing caution to the winds and eating raw fish, uncooked cookie dough or even a taste of raw stuffing, the higher risk members of your family/friends circle really should not do this.
Be careful with raw eggs.
Raw eggs contain Salmonella. Not every egg. But no use betting on it. If you are choosing a recipe, such as eggnog, which calls for uncooked eggs, there is a safer alternative. Even if everyone is a healthy adult (and do you really know if they are all “healthy”?), it might be best to use a pasteurized egg product. They are often sold by the carton in the refrigerated egg or milk case. Otherwise, you might want to use a recipe for eggnog that preheats the egg to 160 degrees F to ensure that eggs are cooked sufficiently. Here is one from FoodSafety.gov: https://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/eggnog.html. Unfortunately, contrary to some popular cooking shows and magazines, adding alcohol to eggnog does not kill the Salmonella.
Watch out for raw doughs and batters.
We have all heard the warnings to avoid eating raw cookie dough—even though we may have all done it at one time with no apparent ill effects. Raw cookie dough or raw batters containing eggs share the same risk as raw eggnog. This would also be true of raw cookie dough that you might add to homemade ice cream. Commercial makers of cookie ice cream and other foods will use pasteurized eggs in their products.
There is another potential risk to eating raw batters and doughs that you may not even be aware of. It is the flour. Yes, the flour. Flour is considered a raw agricultural product. It has not been treated to kill potential foodborne pathogens (microbes that cause illness). Since 2008, there have been five foodborne disease outbreaks tied to flour, two in Canada, one in New Zealand, and two in the US. So, even if a dough contains no eggs (pastry dough, for example), it is best not to eat it raw.
Think twice before serving raw meat, fish, or shellfish.
Honestly, I like a raw clam now and then. Some of my food safety colleagues look on aghast while others join in. Maybe you prefer raw oysters or sashimi. However, I do this knowing the risks I am taking. I do it rarely and only when I think the purveyor has been meticulous—and I still know there is a risk! Lots of folks do not know or understand the risks. Bacteria, such as Listeria, Salmonella, Vibrio vulnificous and parasites that include tapeworm and Anisakid nematodes may be associated with raw fish and shellfish. Again, if you are healthy, and visit restaurant or seafood retailers who are very careful, your risk may be less than that of an immune compromised adult or young child. However, the risk is never zero. So, during the holidays, choose a faux “ceviche” recipe that involves marinating cooked shrimp or fish. Serve oyster stew or clams casino that have been checked with a food thermometer.
If your holiday recipes include some of these risky ingredients, keep in mind that you can spread the pathogens that cause foodborne illness during the preparation steps. When you are cranking out trays and trays of cookies or appetizers, you need to practice the basic sanitation skills that will keep your food safe. Always use clean hands when handling any raw food and wash them again after handling that food. Use clean surfaces, cutting boards, knives, mixing spoons or other utensils: then wash them thoroughly in hot, soapy water before using them to prepare other foods. If that flour you used to dust the pie shell gets spread around or the raw egg drips onto the counter where you are decorating sugar cookies, it could end up in your salad or on your kid’s hands (which at some point will end up in their mouth).
Check the clock as you are baking and try not to leave doughs (or other raw ingredients, for that matter) out for more than four hours at a time. This allows the pathogens to multiply, increasing the risk for cross-contamination.
Finally, every cook is told to taste their dishes before presenting them to the guests. It’s one of the first questions asked of competing chefs on the cooking shows: “Did you even taste this?” But, please, do not taste until the risky ingredients are cooked through. I will never forget a Christmas Eve in my childhood when Mom had made the stuffing, containing raw sausage and eggs, the day before. She always liked to taste the raw stuffing. (Right!) She spent Christmas day in bed….and the bathroom.
For more information about safe food preparation during the holidays, visit our website at www.foodsafety.uconn.edu, or foodsafety.gov, or contact the Home and Garden Education Center at email@example.com or 1-877-486-6271.
I took on food safety as a focus of my Extension programming in the early 1990’s: little did I know that for the next 20-plus years my food safety educator life would be full of surprises. Early on, the issues were what a consumer would expect them to be—salmonella and eggs, salmonella and chicken, seafood as a source of a variety of foodborne illnesses. After all, these are all animal based products, high in protein, low in acid, the perfect breeding ground for the bacteria that cause much foodborne illness.
But at the same time, Listeria monocytogenes was an emerging pathogen that would soon become ubiquitous in the food processing industry. We learned that E. coli COULD survive an acid environment such as apple cider. And then came an onslaught of outbreaks related to fresh produce, which heretofore was not considered what were called, potentially hazardous foods or PHF, in the FDA Model Food code.
Like all science, the science of food safety is ever evolving. And so too are the unfortunate targets of the microorganisms that cause foodborne illness.
Some of the surprises over the years have resulted in additional regulation. The Jack in the Box E. coli outbreak (as well as others), was one driver of the 1996 USDA “Mega-reg” that required all meat and poultry processing plants to develop food safety systems based on HACCP or Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs. These programs lay the onus on the industry to identify the food safety hazards that could potentially affect their products and/or processes and to adopt controls to prevent the hazards or at least to minimize the risk of a foodborne illness from these hazards once their product gets into commerce and ultimately the consumer.
Similarly, it was a series of outbreaks affecting apple cider, apple juice (Odwalla, 1994) and other fresh juices that resulted in the FDA Fresh Juice HACCP regulation in 2001.
The FDA Food Code has also adapted over time as new foods or food processes have added risk to foods that weren’t identified as hazards in previous editions. Currently, seed sprouts, sliced melons, sliced tomatoes, and cut lettuces are all considered time-temperature for control foods (formerly PHF). Each of these were added following outbreaks that affected them. All are low acid foods that support the growth of microorganisms.
So, yes, outbreaks can surprise us. Consider some of the food products that have shown up in the news recently.
Deer antler tea and botulism—affected two in California. (Maybe the biggest surprise here is that someone actually drinks deer antler tea?)
coli in flour, including a rare form, O121 in a Canadian flour source
Botulism in carrot juice (was mishandled by consumers)
A variety of outbreaks tied to pet food
Frozen vegetables: this Listeria outbreak and subsequent recalls affected as many as 350 consumer products sold under 42 brand names.
Chicken pot pies (a result of unclear labeling, consumer handling)
Not an outbreak, but still a hazard—golf balls in hash browns?
Pepper and other spices in ready to eat products (coatings on cheese or salami), in spice mixes and simply on their own in a bottle.
Sometimes, it is not the outbreak that surprises us, but the extent of the consequences. Raw milk is an example of this. Outbreaks tied to raw milk are not unusual, but a soon to be released report from the Centers for Disease Control indicates that unpasteurized milk and cheese products caused 96% of illnesses attributed to dairy products. This is an important statistic.
In several recent outbreaks, including the Peanut Corporation of America and the Jensen Brothers Farm Listeria outbreak in cantaloupe, the owners and some employees of the companies were arrested and given hefty fines, probation, and in some cases, prison sentences.
Lessons learned, changes made
There will always be surprises. In my food safety courses for industry personnel, I use some of these examples as lessons for those who insist that an outbreak or recall will never happen to them. The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was itself the end result of many surprises. The foods regulated by the FDA are not under as much scrutiny as those regulated by the USDA. Inspections are less frequent. Businesses really do need to take responsibility for the safety of their food as the government agency that oversees them simply does not have the resources to do so. So after a series of outbreaks tied to FDA regulated foods (peanut butter, cheese, spinach, melon, sprouts, pet foods and others) that were not previously required to have a food safety program in place, FSMA was adopted. Included in the regulation were rules addressing fresh produce, processed foods (except those currently under HACCP regulations such as juice and seafood), pet foods and imports. A thriving third party audit industry has also developed as customers of food processors seek greater assurances that the products they are buying are produced under a food safety program.
What is a consumer to do?
Consumers should simply remain vigilant. Keep up on recalls or outbreaks that affect the foods you eat. If you like to get emails, you can sign up for notifications of recalls on both the FDA site (www.fda.gov) and the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service site (www.fsis.usda.gov). Consider using shopper loyalty cards when your supermarket makes them available. They are often used to contact consumers who may have purchased a product associated with an outbreak or recall.
A more reasonable approach may simply to be to learn about how you get sick from food. Learn about the importance of temperature controls, including cooking times and temperatures, keeping cold foods cold, and cooling foods properly. Learn about cross contamination of ready to eat foods with contaminated foods (raw meat), dirty hands or dirty countertops. Don’t eat raw foods that should be cooked for safety (raw, undercooked meat or eggs or doughs for example) and handle ready to eat foods like lettuce and cantaloupe carefully. Follow cooking instructions on the processed foods you buy—especially if you are using a microwave oven. You can learn about how to handle food safely at the UConn Food Safety website (www.foodsafety.uconn.edu) or by visiting www.foodsafety.gov .
In other words, take responsibility for the foods that you handle. While that may not ensure that you will be forever free from foodborne illness, at least you will be less likely to be the cause of that illness.
Spring is here (at least officially) and it is always a good time to remind ourselves of how to safely handle eggs. Whether you are hard-boiling them for an Easter or Passover celebration, or looking forward to serving deviled eggs at your family picnic, it is important to follow food safety guidelines.
It wasn’t all that long ago that we thought that uncracked eggs were essentially sterile (inside the egg). But, numerous foodborne disease outbreaks that were sourced back to eggs in the 1970s and 1980s sounded an alarm bell. Maybe the problem was actually Salmonella (a pathogen commonly associated with eggs) IN the egg, not only on the surface of the eggshell. The implications of this new thinking would have a great impact on how eggs are handled by the foodservice industry. If the Salmonella was in the egg, then simply cleaning the shell surface would not reduce the risk of illness from egg-containing menu items such as eggnog, soft-boiled eggs, some custards and other raw or partially cooked egg-containing foods.
Salmonella enteritidis (SE) is a common illness causing strain of this pathogen. It is often associated with eggs. From 1998-2008, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recorded that 60.3% of all SE outbreaks were traced to eggs as the source.
How does SE get into the egg?
There are potentially two ways for this pathogen to get into an egg. First, since Salmonella is an intestinal pathogen, chicken manure can be one source of the problem. Chicken pass eggs through the vent—the same way they poop out waste. Therefore, it is easy for chicken manure to some in contact with the surface of an egg. This can happen as the egg is laid, or if the egg comes into contact with the manure after it is laid, or rodent feces in the barn, or from other contaminated places in the farm environment.
Fresh shell eggs are protected by the “bloom” or “cuticle”, a gelatinous covering that dries after the egg is laid and helps to seal the pores in the egg shell. This is a natural covering that keeps moisture in and helps to keep bacteria out. Some customers may ask for unwashed eggs, thinking that this will mean a safer egg.
Commercially, eggs are often washed and/or sanitized prior to sale. Careful handling and refrigeration of eggs after washing helps to insure against cross contamination and the risk of pathogen growth.
A bigger problem, that is less amenable to environmental controls occurs when a hen’s ovaries for infected with SE. An infected chicken may look completely healthy—and so will her eggs.
Rules and regulations
A Federal Egg Safety rule went into effect in July 2010. Many provisions of the rule were aimed at reducing the risk for Salmonella infected birds. They also addressed environmental controls to minimize the pathogen in the hen house. Each operation must register with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have a written SE Prevention Plan.
Some provisions of the rule address the monitoring and reduction of SE during the raising of pullets, or young hens. Other provisions address biosecurity, control of rodents and other pests, environmental sampling and testing, cleaning and disinfection of the hen house, egg sampling and testing, and refrigeration. Eggs must be held and transported at or below 45°F beginning 36 hours after laying.
The rule also exempts any operation with fewer than 3,000 laying hens and any farmer who sells all of his/her eggs directly to the consumer. These operations do not need to register with FDA, develop a prevention plan or keep records of cleaning or sanitizing operations.
No matter where you buy your eggs—from the farm or the supermarket, make sure that the eggs are refrigerated, clean and uncracked when you buy them. Be sure to refrigerate the eggs quickly after purchase. And, cook eggs until yolks are firm, and cook foods containing eggs thoroughly.
Safe handling of eggs
It is important to handle eggs safely to prevent illness.
When buying eggs, buy shell eggs only when sold from a refrigerator or refrigerated case. In Connecticut supermarkets, eggs must be held at temperatures no lower than 45°F. Open the carton, and make sure that the eggs are clean and the shells are not cracked.
Check “sell-buy” dates so that you are getting the freshest eggs. Sell-by dates are an indication to store owners when to pull the product from the shelves. This does not mean that the food is no longer safe to be consumed. Eggs are safe to eat when stored properly up to 4-5 weeks after the sell by date.
If you choose to buy pasteurized eggs or an egg substitute product (usually found in a cardboard carton) made from egg whites, be sure that the product is sold from a refrigerated or freezer case. Check “sell-buy” dates for the freshest product.
Store eggs in the original carton, and refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase. Be sure that the temperature in your refrigerator is 40°F or below. Eggs are washed and sanitized before they are packed. Eggs should not be washed before storage because you may remove the natural coating on the shell that protects the egg.
When handling or preparing eggs
When preparing eggs, keep in mind that there is always a chance that they could be contaminated with bacteria. Wash your hands and all utensils, counters and cutting boards with hot water and soap before and after preparing eggs. Do not prepare raw eggs near ready-to-eat foods like salads, cooked meat or fish, bread, rolls or fresh fruit.
Use only clean, unbroken eggs. Discard dirty or broken eggs.
Cold temperatures will reduce the chance that bacteria will multiply, so keep shell eggs, broken-out eggs or egg mixtures refrigerated before and after cooking.
Do not leave eggs in any form at room temperature for more than two hours including preparation time and serving.
For picnics or outdoor parties, pack egg dishes with ice or a freezer gel pack in an insulated cooler or bag.
To prevent the contamination of other foods with the bacteria found in raw eggs, wash your hands, utensils, equipment and work areas with hot, soapy water before and after using eggs or making egg-containing foods to prevent cross-contamination.
To keep prepared egg dishes safe, refrigerate leftovers in shallow containers immediately after serving so that they will cool quickly. Use leftovers within two days.
When eggs are fully cooked, bacteria, such as Salmonella, will be killed. When you cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm, you can be sure that they are safe. When eggs are the ingredients in fully cooked baked goods, you may also be sure that the bacteria have been killed. However, when eggs are ingredients in casseroles, quiches, sauces or custards, it is best to use a thermometer to make sure that the food is cooked to at least 160°F.
If you like to eat eggs that are not cooked to this high temperature or if you are serving folks with compromised immune systems, you might want to consider using pasteurized egg products, often found in the dairy section or egg section of your market in a carton similar to a milk carton.
Hardboiled egg safety
Once eggs are cooked, they need to be refrigerated immediately if they are not to be eaten. For some reason, people thing that this is not true of hardboiled eggs…that somehow the shell will protect them from contamination and bacterial growth. Safe cooking and handling of hardboiled eggs includes the following steps:
Cook hard boiled eggs thoroughly. Cool quickly under cold running water or ice water, then refrigerate.
Keep in mind that once an egg is hard-cooked, the protective coating is washed away. This leaves open pores – and an entry point for bacteria.
Keep hard-cooked eggs in the refrigerator until ready to serve. If you are decorating your hard cooked eggs or using them for holiday activities, they should not be out of refrigeration for more than a total of 2 hours. That includes all time spent at room temperature once the egg is cooked—whether cooling, decorating, or using as a centerpiece. If hard cooked eggs are out of refrigeration for more than 2 hours (or even less time if it is over 70° F), then they must be thrown out.
Eat hard cooked eggs within 5 days or so.
For more information about egg safety, go to the US Food and Drug Administration web site at www.fda.gov, the US Department of Agriculture web site at www.fsis.usda.gov, or contact the Home and Garden Education Center at firstname.lastname@example.org or 1-877-486-627.
Eggs, chicken, lettuce, sprouts, and now pistachios. Some readers may think that this association of pistachios with a Salmonellosis outbreak is unusual if not rare. Well, though not likely to be defined as “common,” in recent years a number of outbreaks have been traced to nuts and nut products.
Currently, there is an ongoing outbreak associated with pistachios, with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issuing a recall notice on March 10. The brand of the pistachios was the Wonderful brand, but these were also distributed under the Paramount Farms and Trader Joe’s brands, and others. A list of all lot numbers that have been recalled can be found on the FDA web site (www.fda.gov). At this point, eleven people from nine states have been identified as infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Montevideo, including one person in Connecticut. Two ill people have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Because the shelf life for these products is long, some may still be on consumer shelves, so be sure to check your pantry for the recalled lot numbers.
Salmonella is a foodborne illness causing bacteria that is estimated to cause more than one million foodborne illnesses in the United States, with 19,000 hospitalizations and 450 deaths. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. The illness usually lasts four to seven days, and most persons recover without treatment. However, in some persons, particularly those with compromised immune systems, the elderly and the very young, the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized.
There are a many strains or serotypes of the bacteria: S. Montevideo has caused this outbreak. You may be more familiar with S. Enteriditis. Some strains may be more virulent than others, causing more severe symptoms and side effects.
But why pistachios?
Historically, it was thought that nuts were likely too low in moisture to support the growth of foodborne illness causing bacteria. However, researchers have shown now that Salmonella can live on dry products and in peanut butter for as long as six months.
There have been 11 outbreaks from nuts and nut products (butters, spreads, “cheese”) since 2010, affecting 169 people. There were 25 recalls of contaminated nut products just in 2015. Recalls are often conducted as a result of a testing program—while a foodborne pathogen may show up during testing, it may not result in widespread illness.
And of course, there was the Peanut Corporation of America’s outbreak that resulted in the recall of more than 3,900 products from more than 200 companies, all containing peanut butter or peanut paste from PCA. This outbreak was due to a company that was negligent in its sanitation programs and knowingly shipped contaminated products: four people have been sentenced to prison terms in this case, including the owners of the company, the Parnell brothers.
But most cases are not the result of gross mismanagement and fraud. Nuts like any other product grown in orchards and fields can be contaminated by bird poop or irrigation water or during harvest, especially if the nuts come into contact with the ground. This is one reason, after several outbreaks traced back to almonds, in 2007, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) passed a rule that requires all handlers of almonds to use a process, such as pasteurization, that will significantly reduce the presence of Salmonella.
In addition, during processing, nuts may be soaked in water to soften shells—if the shells are contaminated, this process could spread the bacteria. And, like any other processed food, a good sanitation program is essential. Otherwise a processor runs the risk of cross-contaminating clean product with dirty surfaces or utensils. Or, Listeria can take up residence in the processing environment, risking the contamination of nuts after they are cooked, roasted, or pasteurized.
So, is this something to be concerned about? Well the good news is no, you do not need to be stressed out over your favorite peanut butter. However, if you or a family member is elderly, very young or has an immune system compromised by chronic illness, medications or other condition, then maybe you should steer clear of raw nuts or raw nut butters.
The FDA is presently considering conducting a risk assessment for salmonella in tree nuts (almonds, cashews, macadamia nuts, pistachios, walnuts, etc.) as a result of increasing numbers of recalls and outbreaks. The results of this risk assessment may lead to additional regulations, rules, or guidance documents focused on the nut industry.
Recently, the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) rules were finalized. This, too, will increase jurisdiction of the FDA over both growers and processors of nuts and nut products. The Produce Safety Rule will address what goes on in the field; the Prevention and Controls Rule will impact processing operations. Attention is drawn to safer irrigation methods, worker health and hygiene (important during harvest), sanitation in the field and in the packinghouse. Regular inspections of farms and processing plants will be part of the new regulations.
If you grow nut trees at home, keep these points in mind:
Minimize contact with ground during harvest. Consider covering the ground with a CLEAN tarp or sheet to catch the nuts.
Handle harvested nuts with clean hands.
Always wash surfaces that come into contact with harvested nuts—counters, table tops, etc.
When opening raw nuts, be sure to use clean hands and utensils.
Dry/cure nuts completely before storage—again using clean equipment.
Store nuts in a clean container. Freezing or refrigerating will further reduce the risk of bacterial growth.
Written by Patsy Evans for Naturally@UConn and originally posted on October 14, 2014
Hearing the word ‘outbreak’ makes many people anxious. E. coliO157:H7, spinach, 2006. Salmonella, peanut butter, 2009. Listeria, cantaloupe, 2011. Diane Hirsch, UConn Extension educator for food safety, easily lists previous food-borne pathogen outbreaks. But, fear does not paralyze her.
Instead, she works in classrooms and on farms to make sure that locally produced food, which ends up on tables in New England, is as safe as possible. Her mission: “safe food handling from farm to table.” Her audience includes growers who put produce in boxes on their farms, commercial artisanal cheese makers and home cooks who preserve food in their kitchens.
With the help of over $82,000 in USDA grants, Hirsch trains farmers to follow Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and processors to develop food safety plans. She labors to see farm products that are, according to USDA, “produced, packed, handled, and stored in the safest manner possible to minimize risks of microbial food safety hazards.”
Because of past outbreaks, grocery store chains that buy food from farmers are putting more pressure on them to follow food safety guidelines and submit to voluntary audits. Hirsch estimates that 12 to 14 Connecticut farmers are currently GAP audited. She wants her training programs and farm visits to increase that number by “helping people do what they need to do” in reducing the possibility of contamination and preparing for audits.