UConn Extension

Extension Donor Support is Growing Statewide Programming

high school student sitting with a notebook by the Fenton River
Photo Kara Bonsack

The work of UConn Extension serves thousands of people across Connecticut. UConn Extension educators work in all 169 cities and towns helping Connecticut residents to solve problems in their communities and provide transformational learning experiences to program participants. This couldn’t be done without the financial support of generous donors, many of whom have experienced Extension programs firsthand. 

Donations for Extension programs are made through the UConn Foundation which is an independent nonprofit organization that operates exclusively to promote the educational, scientific, cultural, research and recreational objectives of the University of Connecticut and UConn Health. Housed within the Foundation are funds specifically earmarked for Extension programming that provide critical support to these programs and make it possible to develop innovative programming for Connecticut residents. Here are some examples of programs made possible by the generous contributions of UConn Extension donors.

David E. and Nancy H. Bull CES Innovative Programming Fund

A generous gift from Nancy H. and David E. Bull provides funding to support innovative programming in Extension through a competitive application process open to personnel with a full or partial Extension appointment. Applications must explicitly identify the innovation proposed and the risks involved along with the potential to influence future program delivery. Some of the projects funded include:

UConn CAHNR GMO Team received funding to address the lack of science-based information for citizens regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). A multi-faceted educational approach provided unbiased information which included a web site, a panel discussion on the Storrs campus, development of curriculum for youth audiences, and short videos on GMO subjects.

Assistant Extension Educators Abby Beissinger and Shuresh Ghimire received funding to establish a hot water seed treatment program to combat seed-borne pathogens that cause early infections in fields. Identified in 2019 listening sessions as a top agricultural priority in Connecticut, Dr. Ghimire and Ms. Beissinger shared the hot water treatment protocols and workshop curricula and work collaboratively with other states to contribute to best practices.

UConn Natural Resources Conservation Academy program leaders received funding to address equity and inclusion within community conservation practices. NRCA implemented a series of participatory processes to co-design local conservation projects with multiple community stakeholders in the metro-Hartford area. The goal of this project is to allow communities to meaningfully contribute to the development of conservation that is most in demand within their community.

Master Gardener Fund

UConn Extension’s Master Gardener Program began in 1978 instructing participants in science-based horticulture practices and garden management, after which students apply their knowledge by engaging in community education, including lectures, educational displays, demonstrations, and plant clinics, as well as various outreach projects throughout Connecticut. Donations to the Master Gardener Fund within the UConn Foundation are critical to the ongoing training and community outreach that they provide. Donations contribute to salaries of the Master Gardener coordinators housed in each of the local Extension Centers in Connecticut. Donations literally keep the program going and also allow for increased accessibility and flexibility in learning modalities which combines online learning with traditional classroom instruction. 

4-H Centennial Fund

The 4-H Centennial Fund was created in 2002 in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the national 4-H program. Donations to the fund ensure that participants in the UConn 4-H program have the opportunity to participate in unique and exciting state, regional and national 4-H events. Many 4-H alumni remember their experience at Citizenship Washington Focus or National 4-H Congress. These trips provide important leadership and civic engagement experiences that youth don’t get elsewhere. A delegation of youth once again attended the 2021 National 4-H Congress and plans are underway for the 2022 Citizenship Washington Focus. 

Donations to UConn Extension through the UConn Foundation have made it possible to reach more people with unique and innovative programming that solves problems in communities and enriches the lives of Connecticut families. Donors can rest assured that their contributions matter and significantly impact the lives of Connecticut residents. 

Please consider supporting Extension at s.uconn.edu/GiveToExtension

Article by Nancy Wilhelm

2021 Highlights of Extension Report

 

2021 Highlights of Extension cover

The past two years have challenged us more than anyone could have predicted. Extension adapted our services and programs to continue serving our audiences. We are addressing critical issues related to agriculture and food, climate adaptation, enhancing health and well-being, social justice, and sustainable landscapes. 

Extension is unique because the services we provide are place-based. This place-based perspective allows us to customize solutions for Connecticut residents and we offer programs in all 169 cities and towns. The broader impacts provide our communities with science-based, results driven solutions. Our educators understand the unique challenges that Connecticut faces and co-create solutions for critical issues with those communities.  

Our Highlights of Extension emphasizes the regional work we do in the state. This includes the Coastline, Capital Region, Litchfield Hills, and the Quiet Corner. We share the results of our collaborative partnerships with other state agencies and organizations. Extension’s geographic connection to Connecticut impacts everyone in the state, and we also share the stories of a few of our people and programs that are improving lives.  

Extension continues providing transformational learning experiences to all our audiences. We adapt and collaborate to find solutions for human, environmental, and agricultural issues. 

Thank you for collaborating with us, we are here to serve you. 

Read the full report: s.uconn.edu/highlights21

Food Safety and Refrigeration

By Diane Wright Hirsch, MPH, RD

UConn Extension Educator – Food Safety

inside freezer
As I am writing this, it is snowing lightly outside my office window. I am thinking about the potential weather fluctuations. Lots of folks have filled their freezers and refrigerators in preparation for the storm. But what happens when the power goes out?

This time of year (as opposed to hurricane season), we are lucky that the temperatures are such that we can use the out of doors as one huge refrigerator/freezer. Over the next 8 days it looks like temperatures in my neck of the woods won’t reach much over thirty—and then only for a day or two and then it is back to the deep freeze.

One question I frequently get after a widespread power outage—or, at any time, really—is, “Is   it ok to refreeze food that has defrosted.” Many have been scared into thinking that once a food thaws, it is no longer safe to refreeze or, maybe, even to eat. So, let’s go through two possible defrosting/refreezing scenarios and use a bit of food safety science to explain what happens and what is your best course of action. Before we go any further, though keep in mind that having a couple of food thermometers on hand will help you to make food safety decisions. It would be best if you have one in the freezer (so you can tell if your freezer is still capable of freezing!). Also, have on hand a food thermometer—the same kind that you can use for checking to see if food has cooked to the proper temperature. This thermometer will tell you the actual temperature of the food you are checking on: this is not so important if the food is frozen, but once it defrosts, it can help you with the should I keep it or toss it question.

Your electricity is out—no freezer or refrigerator.

One tool, actually two, that will help you with this is the thermometer.

Once the food defrosts, try to keep it cold by keeping it in the freezer/refrigerator (or outside if it is cold enough). As long as the food stays at 40 degrees F or below, you can refreeze it within a day or two, or maybe even three (fish, ground meat and poultry and similar food with high perishability should be refrozen within 24-48 hours).

Alternatively, cook and/or eat it while it still registers 40 degrees F or below on the thermometer. If both your freezer and refrigerator are out of service, then keep in mind that you should only cook what you can eat – there will be no way to cool down the leftovers for refrigeration.

Dr. Jeantyl Norze Joins Extension as Evaluation Specialist

Jeantyl NorzeDr. Jeantyl Norze joined Extension as our Evaluation Specialist in January of 2022. “I am very excited to join the UConn CAHNR Extension and hopeful about my contributions to help advance the land grant mission of the university. CAHNR Extension has an amazing dynamic team who is knowledgeable and open to new ideas that help further improve the lives of the residents and communities in the state through better programming,” Dr. Norze says. He is looking forward to meeting everyone to learn more about their work and determine how he can best assist them.

Jeantyl Norze, is a Program Development and Evaluation Specialist who have authored and co-authored numerous publications in a variety of refereed national and international journals. Dr. Norze earned his DVM degree at the Universidad Agraria de La Habana (UNAH) and his master’s degree and Ph.D. degree at Louisiana Sate University where he worked as a graduate research student, post-doctoral fellow, and adjunct faculty. During his tenure at Louisiana State University, he was involved in several research and evaluation projects and taught several courses including leadership development, program development, and program evaluation to undergraduate students, graduate students, and extension educators.

Later, in 2019, Dr. Norze joined the University of Neva Reno Extension as the Program Evaluation Coordinator. In this role, he assisted Extension faculty and staff from a variety of departments including Horticulture, Health and Nutrition, Children, Youth, and Family, Natural Resources, and Economic Development with program evaluation, reporting, and needs assessments. He helped with strengthening the evaluation methods and designs, selecting and developing appropriate evaluation tools to gather credible evidence that demonstrates the contributions of each program. In addition, he participated in multiple evaluation and research projects including food insecurity among college students, educational and mental health needs among Nevadan youth, Tufts longitudinal 4-H study, HANRE needs assessment, and so forth.

He developed, in collaboration with his former colleagues, a needs assessment framework to guide statewide needs assessment efforts that seek to meet and understand the changing needs of the communities. He was also the principal investigator for a national research project sponsored by the Western Center for Metropolitan Extension and Research and the University of Nevada, Reno Extension that sought to examine career progression for urban extension professionals in the country.

Job Openings with Extension and CAHNR

banner of Extension programs

We are hiring! Extension and the College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources currently have several open positions. The list of positions is below, as well as the link to the job description and details on how to apply.

Snow Removal Tips

Photo and Article: West Virginia Extension

1360166144Stay safe from slips and strains by following these recommendations for safe and effective snow removal.

  • Shovel all sidewalks adjacent to your property to the bare pavement. This includes any sidewalks outside your fence lines and to the sides/rear of your property.
  • Clear a path at least 36 inches wide. This allows space wide enough for someone using wheelchair, walker or stroller.
  • Strategically pile snow. Don’t create new problems in the street or sidewalk when clearing your car or driveway.
  • Clear ramps at corners and crosswalks. These strategic spots are particularly dangerous and often overlooked.
  • Chop or melt all ice. Ice is the primary cause of falls; it’s not enough to simply remove the snow.
  • Keep street storm drains clear of snow and report clogged drains. The snow will melt, and effective drainage protects streets from icing over and developing potholes.
  • Clear snow around any fire hydrants near your house. Seconds count when a fire occurs and it’s critical for firefighters to find and access hydrants.
  • Shovel frequently. Don’t wait until the snow piles up. Shovel intermittently – after two (2) inches of snow has fallen – to maintain safe conditions and prevent injury when clearing snow and ice.

Be neighborly. Consider helping those who may have difficulty clearing their own sidewalks.

Important health and safety reminders when clearing snow and ice:

  • Stretch during and after working outside. Gently stretch your back, arms and legs to help prevent injury and muscle strain.
  • Keep dry. Change wet clothes frequently to prevent a loss of body heat. Wet clothing loses all of its insulating value and transmits heat rapidly.
  • Cover your mouth. Protect your lungs from extremely cold air by covering your mouth when outdoors.
  • Wear shoes with good soles. Falling is the most common injury when removing snow and ice.
  • Wear shoes with a good cleat tread and layers of absorbing socks.
  • Separate your hands on the shovel. By creating space between your hands, you can increase your leverage on the shovel.
  • Lift with your legs, not your back. Make sure your knees are bending and straightening to lift the shovel instead of leaning forward and straightening with the back.
  • Push the snow. It is easier and better for your back to push the snow rather than lift it. Never throw snow over your shoulders.
  • Avoid overexertion. Cold weather puts an added strain on the heart. Unfamiliar exercise, such as shoveling snow or pushing a car, can bring on a heart attack or make other medical conditions worse.
  • Stay safe. Walk carefully on snowy and icy sidewalks. If using a snowblower, NEVER use your hands to unclog the machine.
  • Maintain an awareness of utilities when removing snow. Do not cover fire hydrants with snow when clearing sidewalks and driveways. Do not shovel snow into the street storm drains.

 

Offer to help individuals who may require special assistance. Seniors and people with disabilities can benefit from a thoughtful neighbor, and they often need extra help during snowy conditions.

Funding Available for Connecticut Farmers

solid ground funding infographic
Farmers: If you are looking for a little help to get access to capital for your farm/market garden, or want some funds to contribute to conservation of natural resources, climate resilience, climate adaptation, or climate mitigation strategies OR help in increasing production and availability of CT Grown products UConn Extension’s Solid Ground program is making a stipend available to CT farmers in the sum of $500-$2000. Pretty great right? Just make sure you fill out the application by January 21st! Find out more info and apply HERE: https://newfarms.uconn.edu/solidgroundstipends/
Funding provided by USDA-NIFA-BFRDA Award #2020-70017-32733

Job Opening: Temporary University Specialist – Poultry Extension

rooster at UConn facility
White leghorn roosters with chickens at the Poultry Uniton Jan. 27, 2017. (Peter Morenus/UConn Photo)

Temporary University SpecialistDepartment of ExtensionTolland County Office

UConn Extension at the College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources is looking to hire a Temporary University Specialist. The position would report to Dr. Indu Upadhyaya whom manages the coordination of a USDA-SAS grant. The candidate will assist with carrying out Poultry Extension Programs with respect to the grant in the state.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

  • Prepare outreach material including educational exhibits, fact sheets, web sites, videos, podcasts, phone apps.
  • Collect data from on-farm demonstrations and workshops and analyze using statistical software such as SAS.
  • Collaborates with community agencies to establish partnerships.
  • Administers evaluation tools and conducts needs assessments.
  • Writes reports as directed.
  • Serves as contact with the community and provides for informational needs such as publications, project program materials and educational opportunities.
  • May serve as project liaison for the Poultry Extension Program at UConn.
  • Assist with managing the UConn-SAS project website.
  • Participates in staff meetings and in-service training.
  • Performs related duties as required.

MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS

  • Bachelor’s degree in Animal Science or related fields.
  • Strong background in poultry sciences, with knowledge of statistics, programming, and basic graphic design.
  • Strong interpersonal skills.
  • Good written and oral communication skills.

APPOINTMENT TERMS

The initial term is a six-month appointment with the opportunity to continue for the duration of the grant. The position is based at the UConn Extension office at Tolland County Agricultural Center in Vernon, CT. Due to the special nature of this appointment, there is no guarantee of continuing your service beyond the specified end date. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience.

TO APPLY

For full consideration, please submit a cover letter, a resume, and the names and contact information for three professional references to indu.upadhyaya@uconn.edu.

Employment of the successful candidate is contingent upon the successful completion of a pre-employment criminal background check.

All employees are subject to adherence to the State Code of Ethics which may be found at http://www.ct.gov/ethics/site/default.asp.

The University of Connecticut is committed to building and supporting a multicultural and diverse community of students, faculty and staff. The diversity of students, faculty and staff continues to increase, as does the number of honors students, valedictorians and salutatorians who consistently make UConn their top choice. More than 100 research centers and institutes serve the University’s teaching, research, diversity and outreach missions, leading to UConn’s ranking as one of the nation’s top research universities. UConn’s faculty and staff are the critical link to fostering and expanding our vibrant, multicultural and diverse University community. As an Affirmative Action/Equal Employment Opportunity employer, UConn encourages applications from women, veterans, people with disabilities and members of traditionally underrepresented populations.

(HR22-25)

Job Opening: Educational Program Assistant in Brooklyn

Educational Program Assistant 1, Windham County Extension

APPLY NOW  – Search #: 495903

Work type: Part-timeLocation: Windham County Extension CenterCategories: Academic Programs and Services

JOB SUMMARY

The UConn Extension Center located in Brooklyn CT is seeking applications for one Educational Program Assistant 1, part-time position (50%).  The position is responsible for supporting and helping implement high-quality, comprehensive, Extension programming at different program sites throughout the region, with specific support to Livestock, EFNEP, Master Gardener, and 4-H programs.  The Educational Program Assistant will report to the Center Coordinator to prioritize programmatic work assignments.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

  • Assists and provides support to Extension Educators working with programs that may include but not be limited to Livestock, EFNEP, Master Gardener, and 4-H programs.
  • Assists in developing educational programs, recruiting, explaining, and providing program information and processes to Extension volunteers and participants.
  • Works with and helps develop and refine program databases using programs such as Excel and Access, to extrapolate relevant data sets, maintain program enrollments, membership and volunteer records, and provide program reports to the Extension Educators as required.
  • Maintains accurate records on each program and assembles databases and prepares statistical and/or historical reports for Extension Educators/Program Coordinators based on program outcomes.
  • Performs office support functions in support of educational programs; processes paperwork, records and files which may be computerized.
  • Supports Extension Educators/Program Coordinators in implementing and providing off-site educational activities in the community to improve practical understanding and accomplish program goals.
  • Provides assistance in assembling, arranging, organizing, and dismantling program event and activity set-ups and arrangements at various locations and venues, i.e. classrooms, fairgrounds, community centers, etc.
  • Supports media relations activities for various programs; works with others to write and edit program and promotional materials for hard and soft copy publications and social media platforms.
  • Assists Extension Educators/Program Coordinators in assessing clients’ capacity to participate in programs and helping to incorporate related knowledge into program activities for greatest learning opportunities.
  • Assists Extension Educators/Program Coordinators in developing and implementing programs to enhance learning and provide appropriate content-based experiences to accomplish program goals.
  • Under supervision, provides educational training and conducts related support services on an ongoing basis, and assists in resolving problems in assigned area of responsibility.
  • Assists with increasing community collaborations with partner groups.
  • Performs other related duties as required.

MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS   

  • Bachelor’s degree in related field and up to one year of related experience or an Associates degree and two to three years of related experience;
  • Proficiency in Microsoft Office Suite including Excel and Access and other database activities.
  • Demonstrated sensitivity towards diverse youth, families, and volunteer clientele to be served.
  • Demonstrated experience providing organizational support in a team environment.
  • Knowledge and familiarity with the Cooperative Extension System.
  • Must be able to regularly lift, carry, load, unload and transport equipment, supplies, and/or program materials for educational events and workshops such as laptops, projectors, tables, chairs, displays, paper media, etc.
  • Must be willing and able to work flexible and irregular hours, including occasional nights and weekends to help conduct programs at off-site locations.
  • Must have reliable transportation to meet in-state travel requirements (mileage allowance provided).

PREFERRED QUALIFICATIONS 

  • Demonstrated success in public relations utilizing electronic, social, and print media and platforms such as Cushy/Aurora.
  • Experience working with large databases, and generating reports including 4-H online registration.
  • Experience participating with collaborative community partnerships.
  • Experience working with UConn administrative processes.
  • Experience with STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) technology.
  • Bilingual Spanish and English.

Physical Requirements

Incumbents must possess the ability to perform the required duties set forth above.

APPOINTMENT TERMS

The position is part-time and located at the Windham County Extension Center in Brooklyn, CT, however, regular travel within the region will be required. Occasional in-state travel to other UConn campuses, including Storrs, may be required in support of program needs. This position includes an outstanding full benefits package. Salary will be commensurate with successful candidate’s backgrounds and experiences.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

Employment at the University of Connecticut is contingent upon the successful candidate’s compliance with the University’s Mandatory Workforce COVID-19 Vaccination Policy.  This Policy states that all workforce members are required to have or obtain a Covid-19 vaccination as a term and condition of employment at UConn, unless an exemption or deferral has been approved.

Employment of the successful candidate is contingent upon the successful completion of a pre-employment criminal background check.

TO APPLY

Please apply online at https://hr.uconn.edu/jobs, Staff Positions, Search #495903 to upload a resume, cover letter, and contact information for three (3) professional references.

This job posting is scheduled to be removed at 11:55 p.m. Eastern time on January 5, 2022.

All employees are subject to adherence to the State Code of Ethics which may be found at http://www.ct.gov/ethics/site/default.asp.

The University of Connecticut is committed to building and supporting a multicultural and diverse community of students, faculty and staff. The diversity of students, faculty and staff continues to increase, as does the number of honors students, valedictorians and salutatorians who consistently make UConn their top choice. More than 100 research centers and institutes serve the University’s teaching, research, diversity, and outreach missions, leading to UConn’s ranking as one of the nation’s top research universities. UConn’s faculty and staff are the critical link to fostering and expanding our vibrant, multicultural and diverse University community. As an Affirmative Action/Equal Employment Opportunity employer, UConn encourages applications from women, veterans, people with disabilities and members of traditionally underrepresented populations.

Advertised: Dec 06 2021 Eastern Standard TimeApplications close: Jan 05 2022 Eastern Standard Time

Job: Associate Dean for Extension and Diversity

aerial view of UConn's Horsebarn Hill and campus

The College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources (CAHNR) at the University of Connecticut (UConn) invites applications for the position of Associate Dean for Extension and Diversity with appointment as Full Professor with tenure in a CAHNR Department related to the candidate’s academic discipline. We are seeking an inspirational, dynamic, and visionary individual to provide exemplary College-level leadership in two important areas: Extension and Justice, Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (JEDI), in alignment with the College and University strategic vision. This is a full-time, 12-month appointment, with approximately 70% effort related to Extension leadership and 30% effort related to JEDI leadership. This person will have an outstanding record of professional accomplishments commensurate with appointment at the rank of Professor, with the opportunity for tenure at hire.

The CAHNR Associate Dean for Extension and Diversity will provide innovative leadership in planning, facilitating, supporting, and evaluating statewide Extension programs and JEDI initiatives across the College. CAHNR has 9 Departments, including a Department of Extension. The departments incorporate a wide range of disciplines within traditional agriculture, as well as health, the environment, and natural resources. The College includes 189 tenured, tenure-track, and teaching faculty, 97 staff, 473 graduate students and 2,036 undergraduate students. The Associate Dean for Extension and Diversity plays a key role in the daily functions of the College as a member of the CAHNR leadership team. The Associate Dean reports directly to the Dean.

The Cooperative Extension System (CES) in CAHNR has provided research-based education to families, communities, and businesses across the state and the region for more than a century. CAHNR Extension is a cornerstone of UConn’s land grant mission, to create and disseminate knowledge that improves the lives of people locally, nationally, and internationally. The successful candidate will improve programmatic excellence by expanding and supporting JEDI in our programs and among our faculty, staff, students, and Extension volunteers. Approximately 100 CAHNR Extension faculty and staff are located across nine offices throughout the state including the Storrs and Avery Point campuses.

CAHNR is actively working to expand JEDI throughout the College through intentional efforts to eliminate structural racism. A standing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion committee provides training, workshops, and other resources to expand diversity within the College.  A CAHNR Working Group on Structural Racism was recently formed to explore how the college can break down barriers in teaching, research, and Extension. This work is integral to the CAHNR Strategic Vision. The Associate Dean for Extension and Diversity provides leadership for these College-wide initiatives.

CAHNR has developed and implemented a Strategic Vision to guide the development and focus of our teaching, research, and Extension programs in the years 2020-2025. The Associate Dean for Extension and Diversity will provide leadership in advancing the implementation of CAHNR’s five strategic priorities (https://cahnr.uconn.edu/visionandvalues).

  • Ensuring a vibrant agricultural industry and sustainable food supply
  • Enhancing health and well-being locally, nationally, and globally
  • Dismantling structural racism and fostering environments that advance racial equity, inclusion and belonging by advocating for antiracist policies, practices, and norms.
  • Fostering sustainable landscapes across urban-rural interfaces
  • Advancing resilience and adaptation in a changing climate

The University and CAHNR prioritize scholarship in areas that impact quality of life, including human, animal, plant and environmental health and sustainability. We encourage and provide support for cross-disciplinary, collaborative scholarship across the College, University, nation, and globe. UConn is committed to Life Transforming Education for students and Extension audiences. UConn is recognized as one of the most sustainable and environmentally friendly campuses by the Sierra Club. Through research, teaching, service, and Extension, UConn embraces diversity and inclusion, and cultivates leadership, integrity, and engaged citizenship in its students, faculty, staff, and alumni.

Founded in 1881, UConn is a Land Grant and Sea Grant institution and member of the Space Grant Consortium. It is the state’s flagship institution of higher education and includes a main campus in Storrs, CT, four regional campuses throughout the state, and 13 Schools and Colleges, including a Law School in Hartford, and Medical and Dental Schools at the UConn Health campus in Farmington. The University has approximately 10,000 faculty and staff and 32,000 students, including nearly 24,000 undergraduates and over 8,000 graduate and professional students. UConn is a Carnegie Foundation R1 (highest research activity) institution, among the top 25 public universities in the nation. Through research, teaching, service, and outreach, UConn embraces diversity and cultivates leadership, integrity, and engaged citizenship in its students, faculty, staff, and alumni. UConn promotes the health and well-being of citizens by enhancing the social, economic, cultural, and natural environments of the state and beyond. The University serves as a beacon of academic and research excellence as well as a center for innovation and social service to communities. UConn is a leader in many scholarly, research, and innovation areas. Today, the path forward includes exciting opportunities and notable challenges. Record numbers of undergraduate applications and support for student success have enabled the University to become extraordinarily selective.

Read full job description/apply.